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How are internal combustion engines classified?

April 20, 2022
An internal combustion engine is a type of heat engine that converts the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy. The general implementation method is that fuel and air are mixed and burned to generate heat energy, and the gas is heated and expanded, and is converted into mechanical energy by mechanical devices to do external work.
Depending on the fuel used, the working cycle, the number of cylinders and the purpose, internal combustion engines can be divided into the following types:
(1) Classification according to different fuels used
Diesel engine, gasoline engine, gas engine, natural gas engine.
(2) According to the different classification of the work process
1. Two-stroke: The piston moves two strokes to complete a working cycle.
2. Four strokes: The piston moves four strokes to complete a working cycle.
(3) Classification according to the number of cylinders
1. Single cylinder: An internal combustion engine has only one cylinder.
2. Multi-cylinder: An internal combustion engine has two or more cylinders.
(4) According to different cooling methods
1. Air-cooled: use air as a cooling medium.
2. Water-cooled: use water as the cooling medium.
(5) According to different types of air intake
1. Non-supercharged type: The internal combustion engine is not equipped with a supercharger, and the air enters the cylinder by the suction effect of the piston.
2. Supercharged type: A supercharger is installed on the internal combustion engine, and the air enters the cylinder after increasing the pressure through the supercharger.
(6) Classification according to different ignition methods
1. Compression ignition type: After the air is highly compressed in the cylinder, a high temperature is generated, so that the fuel ignites and burns by itself, such as a diesel engine.
2. Ignition type: Use the spark from the spark plug to ignite the fuel to make it ignite and burn, such as a gasoline engine.
(7) Different classification according to rated speed
1. High-speed diesel engine: the rated speed is above 100Or/min.
2. Medium speed diesel engine: the rated speed is in the range of 600-100Or/min.
3. Low-speed diesel engine: the rated speed is below 600r/min.
(8) Classification according to different uses
1. Fixed type: The internal combustion engine as a fixed mechanical power works in a fixed position, such as a diesel engine for drilling generators.
2. Mobile: Internal combustion engines used as mobile mechanical power, such as diesel engines used in automobiles and tractors.