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Working Principle and Structure of DC Generator

August 05, 2022
1, what is the working principle of DC generators
The motor drags the armature to make it rotate counterclockwise at a constant speed, the coil side ab and cd cut the magnetic lines of force under the poles of different polarities respectively, induction generates electric potential.
The working principle of DC generator is to take the alternating electric potential induced in the armature coil and turn it into DC electric potential by the commutator with the commutation of brushes, when it is led out from the brush end. Because the electric potential induced by the brush A through the commutator is always the electric potential in the side of the coil that cuts the N pole magnetic force line. Therefore, brush A always has positive polarity, and by the same token, brush B always has negative polarity. So the brush end can lead to a constant direction but the size of the pulsating electric potential changes.
2, what is the structure of the DC generator
DC generator to achieve electromechanical energy transformation, there must be relative motion between the circuit and the magnetic circuit. So the rotating motor has two major parts: the stationary and the rotating. There is a gap of a certain size between the stationary and rotating parts, called the air gap. The static part is called the stator, which is used to generate the magnetic field and serve as the mechanical support of the motor. It includes the main magnetic pole, commutation pole, seat, end cover, bearing, brush device, etc. The rotating part is called rotor or armature, the role is to induce potential to achieve energy conversion. Including armature core, armature winding, commutator, shaft and fan, etc.
Stator part.
① main magnetic pole: also known as the main pole. The function is to generate the air gap magnetic field.
② commutation pole: also known as additional pole or interpole. The function is to improve the commutation. Installed between the main pole.
③Machine base: welded from cast steel or thick steel plate. It is the mechanical support of the motor.
④Brush device: the DC voltage and current will be introduced or led out of the device. The number of groups is equal to the number of poles of the main pole.
Rotor part.
① Armature core: the main part of the main magnetic circuit and embedded armature winding, made of silicon steel sheet iterative pressing.
② armature winding: composed of many coils connected according to certain rules. Used to induce electric potential and through the current, is the main part of the circuit.
③ commutator: composed of many commutation pieces insulated from each other.